c) What Wikipedia thinks
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c) What Wikipedia thinks

Here are quotations from the various articles linked to.

Single parent

According to David Blankenhorn,[20] Patrick Fagan,[21] Mitch Pearlstein[22] David Popenoe[23] and Barbara Dafoe Whitehead[24], living in a single parent family is strongly correlated with school failure and problems of delinquency, drug use, teenage pregnancies, poverty, and welfare dependency in the United States. Using multilevel modeling, Suet-Ling Pong has shown that a high proportion of American children from single parent families perform poorly on mathematics and reading achievement tests.[25][26]

Juvenile delinquency

Children resulting from unintended pregnancies are more likely to exhibit delinquent behavior.[18] They also have lower mother-child relationship quality.[19]

Unintended pregnancy

Children whose births were unintended are:

  • Greater likelihood of low birth weight, particularly for unwanted pregnancies.[5][18] This may be through increased risk of preterm delivery.[5] In the US, eliminating all unwanted pregnancies would reduce rate of low birth weight by 7% for blacks, and 4% for whites, helping to decrease the large disparity in rates for whites vs. blacks.[5]
  • Greater infant mortality.[5][18] If all sexually active couples in the US had routinely used effective contraception in 1980, there would have been 1 million fewer abortions, 340,000 fewer live births that were unintended at conception, 5,000 fewer infant deaths, and the infant mortality rate would have been 10% lower.[5]
  • Likely to be less mentally and physically healthy during childhood.[19]
  • At higher risk of child abuse and neglect.[5][20]
  • Less likely to succeed in school,[21]
  • More likely to live in poverty and need public assistance.[21]
  • More likely to have delinquent and criminal behavior.[21] (see also legalized abortion and crime effect)
  • Significantly lower test scores[17]
  • Less likely to have a close relationship with their mother.[17]

Children of uninvolved parents suffer in social competence, academic performance, psychosocial development and problem behavior.